This section provides a comparison of the two states’ K-12 public school systems using three common measures: total per-pupil public school expenditures, teacher pay, and socioeconomic status of the K-12 student population. These factors are frequently seen as important drivers of student achievement. They also provide context for the two states’ policies and test results, which are discussed later in the paper.
 See, for instance William Howell, Martin West, and Paul E. Peterson, “The Public Weighs in on School Reform,” Education Next, vol. 11, no. 4 (Hoover Institution, 2011) http://goo.gl/4TZaf (accessed April 24, 2013).