1   National Federation of Independent Business et al., v. Sebelius, Secretary of Health And Human Services, et al., (Supreme Court of the United States, 2012), 1, 45-58, http://goo.gl/w5WSG (accessed May 14, 2013).

2   Ibid., 10.

3   Elmendorf, “CBO’s Analysis of the Major Health Care Legislation Enacted in March 2010,” (Congressional Budget Office, 2011), http://goo.gl/87zua (accessed May 15, 2013).

4   “Affordable Care Act,” (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services), http://goo.gl/aEJcg (accessed May 15, 2013).

5   “Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–152),” (United States Government Printing Office, 2010), 1051, http://goo.gl/AjQn2 (accessed May 16, 2013).

6   “Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly (0-64) with Incomes up to 139% Federal Poverty Level (FPL)(Number),” (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation), http://goo.gl/RgRJc (accessed May 15, 2013).

7   Ibid.

8   Authors’ calculations based on ibid.

9   Ibid.

10 “Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–152),” (United States Government Printing Office, 2010), 1051, http://goo.gl/AjQn2 (accessed May 16, 2013); “The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148),” (Government Printing Office, 2010), 271, http://goo.gl/ipNH3 (accessed May 16, 2013).

11 “Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 (Public Law 111–152),” (United States Government Printing Office, 2010), 1051, http://goo.gl/AjQn2 (accessed May 16, 2013); “The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148),” (Government Printing Office, 2010), 271, http://goo.gl/ipNH3 (accessed May 16, 2013).

12 “Federal Register, RIN 0938-AQ63 (Final Rule on the ‘Medicaid Parity’ provision),” (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, Nov. 16, 2012), http://goo.gl/aFqGt.

13 Authors’ calculations based on “Distribution of the Nonelderly Uninsured by Federal Poverty Level (FPL)(Number),” (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation), Number, http://goo.gl/9roLX (accessed May 21, 2013).

14 Garry Faja, Ora Pescovitz and Jean Meyer, “Health system CEOs: Support Gov. Snyder’s decision to expand Medicaid,” (Detroit Free Press, June 5, 2013), http://goo.gl/UlqA0 (accessed June 10, 2013); Tim Martin, “Gov. Rick Snyder: Medicaid expansion ‘makes sense for the physical and fiscal health of Michigan’,” (MLive, Feb. 6, 2013), http://goo.gl/LiOwX (accessed June 11, 2013).

15 Douglas W. Elmendorf, “Letter to Senator Olympia Snowe,” (Congressional Budget Office, 2010), 1-2, http://goo.gl/Ii7fo (accessed May 20, 2013).

16 Authors’ calculations based on “Michigan Department of Community Health Survey of Physicians,” (Public Sector Consultants Inc. and Michigan Department of Community Health, 2011), 1-2, http://goo.gl/G2XeM (accessed May 16, 2013).

17 Ibid., 2.

18 Ibid., 12.

19 Ibid., 7.

20 Ibid., 6.

21 Peter J. Cunningham and Len M. Nichols, “The Effects of Medicaid Reimbursement on the Access to Care of Medicaid Enrollees: A Community Perspective,” Medical Care Research and Review 62, no. 6 (2005).

22 “2012 Medicaid-to-Medicare Fee Index,” (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation), http://goo.gl/ZVuWb (accessed May 16, 2013).

23 Authors’ calculations based on Rick Murdock, “Overview of Medicaid and Medicaid Managed Care (Testimony to the Michigan House of Representatives Committee on Competitiveness on House Bill 4714, May 14, 2013),” (Michigan House of Representatives, 2013), 2,5, http://goo.gl/RJ8RB (accessed May 21, 2013).

24 Ibid., 4.

25 “Medicaid Managed Care: Key Data, Trends, and Issues,” (Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured, 2012), 4, http://goo.gl/ 4ZNCn (accessed June 2, 2013).

26 Sandra L. Decker, “In 2011 Nearly One-Third Of Physicians Said They Would Not Accept New Medicaid Patients, But Rising Fees May Help,” Health Affairs vol. 31, no. 8 (2012), http://goo.gl/fKsM0 (accessed May 16, 2013).

27 Ibid.

28 Ibid., 1675.

29 Brent R. Asplin et al., “Insurance Status and Access to Urgent Ambulatory Care Follow-up Appointments,” Journal of the American Medical Association vol. 294, no. 10 (2005): 1248, 50, http://goo.gl/ Yfdac (accessed May 16, 2013).

30 “Michigan Department of Community Health Survey of Physicians,” (Public Sector Consultants Inc. and Michigan Department of Community Health, 2011), 6, http://goo.gl/G2XeM (accessed May 16, 2013).

31 Ibid., 5, 6, 23.

32 “2009 Survey of Physician Appointment Wait Times,” (Merritt Hawkins & Associates, 2009), 2-3, http://goo.gl/Zytko (accessed May 16, 2013).

33 Ibid., 5.

34 Ibid., 8.

35 Ibid., 6.

36 Ibid., 7.

37 Ibid., 4.

38 David Cutler and Jonathan Gruber, “Does Public Insurance Crowd Out Private Insurance?,” Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 111, no. 2 (1996) http://goo.gl/wy5Ug (accessed June 10, 2013).

39 Steven D. Pizer, Austin Frakt and Lisa Iezzoni, “The Effect of Health Reform on Public and Private Insurance in the Long Run,” (Health Care Financing & Economics, 2011), http://goo.gl/PhZuY (accessed May 16, 2013).

40 Authors’ calculations based on “Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly (0-64) with Incomes up to 139% Federal Poverty Level (FPL)(Percent),” (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation), http://goo.gl/RgRJc (accessed May 15, 2013).

41 Authors’ calculations based on “Health Insurance Coverage of the Nonelderly (0-64) with Incomes up to 139% Federal Poverty Level (FPL)(Number),” (The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation), http://goo.gl/RgRJc (accessed May 15, 2013).

42 Ibid.

43 “Table 242: Total fall enrollment in degree-granting institutions, by state or jurisdiction: Selected years, 1970 through 2011,” (National Center for Education Statistics, 2012), Digest of Education Statistics, http://goo.gl/O4pzO (accessed June 2, 2013).

44 M. Kate Bundorf and Mark V. Pauly, “Is Health Insurance Affordable for the Uninsured?,” (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2002), 41, http://goo.gl/RCxFs (accessed May 17, 2013).

45 Ibid., 25.

46 Ithai Z. Lurie and James Pearce, “The Effects of ACA on Income Eligibility for Medicaid and Subsidized Private Insurance Coverage: Income Definitions and Thresholds across CPS and Administrative Data,” (U.S. Department of Treasury, 2012), http://goo.gl/BtDoV (accessed May 17, 2013).

47 William McBride, “At least 90 percent of Americans Have a Lower Income Tax Rate than Romney,” in The Tax Policy Blog, ed. Tax Foundation (2012), http://goo.gl/YxGo0, (accessed June 7, 2013)

48 For example, see “Reasonable Compatibility Scenarios,” (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services), http://goo.gl/HsEju (accessed May 17, 2013).

49 Robert G. Williams, “Eligibility Primer for Affordable Care Act Programs,” (State Reforum, 2012), 8-9, http://goo.gl/lI2vp (accessed May 17, 2013).

50 Ibid., 10; Steve Novick, “The New World of Exchanges,” (CMS Eligibility Conference, 2011), 4, http://goo.gl/20HML (accessed May 17, 2013).

51 Williams, “Eligibility Primer for Affordable Care Act Programs,” (State Reforum, 2012), 3, 8-9, http://goo.gl/lI2vp (accessed May 17, 2013).

52 “The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (Public Law 111-148),” (Government Printing Office, 2010), Sec. 2201, http://goo.gl/ ipNH3 (accessed May 16, 2013). Also see Williams, “Eligibility Primer for Affordable Care Act Programs,” (State Reforum, 2012), http://goo.gl/lI2vp (accessed May 17, 2013).

53 “Compilation of Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [As Amended Through May 1, 2010] including Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act Health-Related Portions of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010,” (Office of the Legislative Counsel, 2010), 198-200 (Sec. 2201), http://goo.gl/PxFe5 (accessed June 12, 2013).

54 Margaret Murray and Kathryn Kuhmerker, “The Medicaid Expansion: A One-Step Plan to Improve Coverage and Care,” (Georgetown University Health Policy Institute, 2013), http://goo.gl/ P8Rqp (accessed May 17, 2013); Benjamin D. Sommers and Sara Rosenbaum, “Issues In Health Reform: How Changes In Eligibility May Move Millions Back And Forth Between Medicaid And Insurance Exchanges,” Health Affairs vol. 30, no. 2 (2011) http://goo.gl/fJMej (accessed June 8, 2013).

55 For a detailed comparison, see Evelyne P. Baumrucker and Bernadette Fernandez, “Comparing Medicaid and Exchanges: Benefits and Costs for Individuals and Families,” (Congressional Research Service, 2013), http://goo.gl/XJryb (accessed May 17, 2013).

56 Kevin Dayaratna, “Studies Show: Medicaid Patients Have Worse Access and Outcomes than the Privately Insured,” (The Heritage Foundation, 2012), http://goo.gl/wHjrb (accessed May 20, 2013).

57 For example, see the discussion Avik Roy, “UVa Study: Surgical Patients on Medicaid Are 13% More Likely To Die Than Those Without Insurance,” (The Apothecary, 2012), http://goo.gl/QNRL1 (accessed May 20, 2013).

58 Authors’ calculations based on Rachel Rapaport Kelz et al., “Morbidity and Mortality of Colorectal Carcinoma Surgery Differs by Insurance Status,” Cancer vol. 101, no. 10 (2004): 2191 http://goo.gl/ 9a9h0 (accessed June 9, 2013).

59 Robert J. Barro and Charles J. Redlick, “Macroeconomic Effects from Government Purchases and Taxes,” (National Bureau of Economic Research, 2009), http://www.nber.org/papers/w15369 (accessed May 20, 2013).

60 Carter C. Price and Evan Saltzman, “The Economic Impact of the Affordable Care Act on Arkansas,” (The RAND Corporation, 2013), 9, http://goo.gl/wdhze (accessed May 20, 2013).

61 Ibid.

62 “NHE Tables,” (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2012), 4, http://goo.gl/x4LR3 (accessed June 7, 2013).

63 “National Health Expenditure Projections 2010-2020,” (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, 2011), 21, Table 16, http://goo.gl/ fvsTs (accessed June 7, 2012).

64 Authors’ calculations based on “Federal Register, Vol. 76, No. 230, Wednesday, November 30, 2011, Notices,” (Government Printing Office, 2011), 74062-63, Table 1, http://goo.gl/Bfp0Z (accessed May 21, 2013).

65 Ibid.

66 For a discussion, see John C. Goodman, “A Framework for Medicare Reform,” (National Center for Policy Analysis, 2008), http://www.ncpa.org/pdfs/st315.pdf (accessed May 21, 2013).

67 “The 2012 Long-Term Budget Outlook,” (Congressional Budget Office, 2012), 53, Table 3-1, http://goo.gl/OORzO (accessed June 7, 2013).

68 Congressional Budget Office Director Peter Orszag, “Letter to Senator Judd Gregg,” (Congressional Budget Office, 2007), http://goo.gl/GI44d (accessed May 21, 2013).

69 Ibid., 8.

70 Ibid.

71 Ibid.

72 For a discussion of the impact of Medicaid spending on the Michigan state budget, see Josiah Kollmeyer and Jack McHugh, “Medicaid - The Monster that Ate Michigan’s Budget,” (Mackinac Center for Public Policy, 2011), http://www.michigancapitol confidential.com/15512 (accessed May 21, 2013).

73 See, for instance, Tamyra Carroll Garcia, Amy B. Bernstein, and Mary Ann Bush, “Emergency Department Visitors and Visits: Who Used the Emergency Room in 2007?,” (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2010), 2-3, http://goo.gl/QxsrD (accessed June 9, 2013); Eduardo LaCalle and Elaine Rabin, “Frequent Users of Emergency Departments: The Myths, the Data, and the Policy Implications,” (Annals of Emergency Medicine, 2010), 3, http://goo.gl/m4PjP (accessed June 10, 2013).